|ENDOCRINOLOGY and metabolism is a
of medicine that researches, diagnoses, treats, prevents and follows up disorders of the hormone secreting glands and
metabolic disorders. The main endocrine glands are the pituitary (master gland), the thyroid the adrenals and parathyroid
glands. The pancreas , testicles and ovaries are also important organs that secret hormones such as insulin, male
( androgens) and female ( estrogens) hormones. Disorders of these glands include hypo or hyperthyroidism, thyroid
cancer, infertility, erectile dysfunction and impotence, premature and natural menopause, elevated serum calcium levels,
osteoporosis , kidney stones, and growth disorders. Metabolic disorders, treated by endocrinologists, include diabetes
mellitus and all of its complications, lipid disorders (cholesterol, triglycerides), hypoglycemia, arterial hypertension,
syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome.
An endocrinologist is a highly-trained physician. After receiving an MD degree, the physician must complete three or
more years in an internal medicine training program and must pass stringent exams to become nationally board-certified
by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Following this, the physician must complete two or more years in an
endocrinology training program and must pass additional stringent exams to become nationally board-certified in
Endocrinology & Metabolism.
Thus, an endocrinologist has special expertise in the evaluation and treatment of diseases caused by an excess or
deficiency of hormones normally secreted by the endocrine glands and metabolic disorders.
Jose R. Antunes, M.D., 2003-11